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TU Berlin

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Gerhard Franz

Research Interest

Research interests are two-fold: experimental mineralogy-petrology-geochemistry and field related petrological studies (see also list of projects and publications). Experimental studies were carried out in the last years on amphibole, tourmaline and on the epidote minerals, with the emphasis of element partitioning between fluid and solid. Field related studies were and are currently being carried out in the Andes, with a special focus on the evolution of the continental crust and the upper mantled; in the Alps and in the Münchberg area (central Germany), with emphasis on P-T-t paths, high pressure rocks and fluid evolution; in S-Egypt and N- and W-Sudan, Cenozoic volcanism and basement evolution.

Research Projects

  • Research group FOR 741 (DFG) 'Nanoscale processes and geomaterials properties', project 'Fluid assisted mineral replacement' example reactions rutile + fluid = titanite and corundum + fluid = al-silicate; in cooperation with Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (W. Heinrich, R. Romer), University of Vienna (R. Abart), Universität Bremen (F. Lucassen); PhD project Dina Schultze.
  • Research group FOR 736 (DFG) 'The Precambrian-Cambrian biosphere (r)evolution: Insights from Chinese microcontinents', project 'Multi-proxy records of seawater chemistry and environmental change from Precambrian-Cambrian carbonate-phosphorite and chert-phosphorite assemblages: Implications for enhanced bioproductivity and phosphogenesis' in cooperation with Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (F. v. Blankenburg)
  • Crustal evolution of the basement and intraplate magmatism in Sudan (Bayuda Desert, Darfur Mountains); PhD project David Evuk (DAAD sponsored); in cooperation with D. Frei (Univ. Stellenbosch, SA), F. Lucassen (Univ. Bremen), B. Meissner (Beuth FH Berlin)
  • Dissolution behavior of beryl; PhD project R. Kurumathur
  • Kinetics of silicate liquid immiscibility; DFG project Dr. I. Veksler; in cooperation with Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (S. Speziale) and LMU München (D. Dingwell)
  • Experimental determination of Sr and Pb distribution between epidote minerals and hydrous fluid (in cooperation with GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam; Dr. A. Liebscher, Dr. M. Gottschalk)
  • Phosphor-minerals monazite-xenotime; age dating of Precambrian metaquartzite from Brasil
  • P-T-t evolution of the  Münchberg Gneiss Area (in cooperation with J. Glodny, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum; A. Gerdes, Univ. Frankfurt)
  • Tourmaline as a fluid-rock indicator - experimental petrology and examples from natural rocks (in planning)
  • Natursteineinsatz in der Reichslandzeit in Metz und Straßburg: Kulturhistorische, technische und ökonomische Determinanten (in planning, in cooperation with G. Dolff-Bonekämper, G. Schirrmeister, TU Berlin)

Publication list and Supplemental Information

Publikationsliste G. Franz                                      


Projects in preparation:

Franz, G., Anselm, L., Schultze, D., Börner, F., Sawall, J., Meixner, A., Kutzschbach, M., Nissen, J.  Geochemistry and metamorphic history of the Mesozoic metasedimentary Pfitsch Formation, Western Tauern window, Austria/Italy


Kurumathoor, R., Franz, G. Etch pits in beryl as indicators of provenance and petrogenesis


Koglin, N., Franz, G., Schüssler, U., Glodny, J., Zeh, A., Gerdes, A., Brätz H. Geochronology and geochemistry of nappe protoliths of the Münchberg Massif, NE Bavaria (Germany) – new aspects for the Cadomian-Variscan evolution of the Saxothuringian Zone



Franz, G. Khomenko, V. Vishnyevskyy, A. Wirth, R. Nissen, J. Rocholl A. (revision submitted) Organic matter and formation of buddingtonite - an example of organic-igneous interaction from the Paleoproterozoic Volyn pegmatite, Ukraine. Amer Mineral


Evuk, D., Lucassen, F., Franz, G. (in revision) Lead isotope evolution across the Neoproterozoic boundary between craton and juvenile crust, Bayuda Desert, Sudan. J African Earth Sci



published (accepted)


(153) Berryman, E. J., Kutzschbach, M., Trumbull, R., Meixner, A., van Hinsberg, V., Kasemann, S. A., Franz, G. (2017) Tourmaline as a petrogenetic indicator in the Pfitsch Formation, Western Tauern Window, Eastern Alps. Lithos accepted


 (152) van Hinsberg, V. J., Franz, G., Wood, B. J. (2017) Direct measurement of subduction-zone element mobility using a tourmaline mineral probe. Geochemical Perspective Letters 3, 160-169


(151) Guo, Q., Deng, Y,. Hippler, D., Franz, G., Zhang, J. (2016) REE and trace element patterns from organic-rich rocks of the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition interval. Gondwana Research 36, 94-106


(150) Kutzschbach M., Wunder B., Meixner A., Wirth R., Heinrich W., and Franz G. (accepted) Jeremejevite as a precursor for olenitic tourmaline: Consequences of non-classical crystallization pathways for composition, textures and B isotope patterns of tourmaline in synthesis experiments. Eur J Mineral doi: 10.1127/ejm/2017/0029-2604


(149) Berryman, E. J. Wunder, B., Rhede, D., Schettler, G., Franz, G., Heinrich, W. (2016) P-T-X controls on Ca and Na distribution between Mg-Al tourmaline and fluid. Contrib Mineral Petrol, 171, 1-31, doi 10.1007/s00410-016-1246-8


(148) Franz, G., Morteani, G., Rhede, D. (2015) Xenotime-(Y) formation from zircon dissolution-precipitation and HREE fractionation: An example from a metamorphosed phosphatic sandstone, Espinhaço fold belt (Brazil) Contrib Mineral Petrol, 170, 1-37


(147) Büchner, J., Tietz, O., Suhr, P., Loges, A., Franz, G. (2015) Field trip 3: Cenozoic Lausitz Volcanism and its Basement.- In: Röhling, H.-G. (Hrsg.): GeoBerlin 2015. Exkursionsführer/Excursion guide. Exkf. u. Veröffentl. DGG 255,17-34, Hannover


(146) Kutzschbach M., Wunder B., Rhede D., Koch-Müller M., Ertl, A., Giester, G., Heinrich W., Franz G. (2016) Tetrahedral boron in natural and synthetic high-pressure tourmaline: Evidence from Raman spectroscopy, EMPA, and single crystal XRD. Amer Mineral 101, 93-104


(145) Berryman E. J., Wunder B., Wirth R., Rhede D., Schettler G., Franz G., Heinrich W. (2015) P-T-X controls on K and Na incorporation in dravitic tourmaline and insight into the formation environment of diamondiferous tourmaline from the Kokchetav Massif, Kazakhstan. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 169, 1-28


(144) Franz, G., Hippler, D., Wirth, R., Rhede, D., Banerjee, D. M., Mahlstedt, N. (2014) Diagenetic formation of interlayer-deficient fluorophlogopite as a clay mineral in Early Cambrian phosphorite (Lesser Himalaya, India): The trioctahedral analogue of illite. American Mineralogist 99, 2353-2368


(143) Franz, G., Morteani, G., Gerdes, A., Rhede, D. (2014) Ages of protolith and Neoproterozoic metamorphism of Al-P-bearing quartzites of the Veredas formation (Northern Espinhaço, Brazil): LA-ICP-MS age determinations on relict and recrystallized zircon and geodynamic consequences. Precambrian Research 250, 6-26


(142) Ruhl, A.S., Franz, G., Gernert, U., Jekel, M. (2014) Corrosion Product and Precipitate Distribution in Two-Component Fe(0) Permeable Reactive Barriers, Chemical Engineering Journal 239, 26-32, doi: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.11.017


(141) Evuk, D., Franz, G., Frei, D., Lucassen, F. (2014) The Neoproterozoic evolution of the central-eastern Bayuda desert. Precambrian Research 240,108-125


(140) Liebscher A., Dörsam G., Franz G., Wunder B., Gottschalk M. (2013) Ca-Sr fractionation between zoisite, lawsonite and aqueous fluids - An experimental study at 2.0 and 4.0 GPa/450 to 800 °C. Amer Mineral 98, 955-965


(139) Lucassen, F., Koch-Müller, M., Taran, M., Franz, G. (2013) Hydrogen incorporation into pure and Nb-, Cr-, V-doped synthetic rutile at 600°C, 400 MPa and possible geological application. Amer Mineral 98, 7-18


(138) Lucassen, F., Pudlo, D., Franz, G., Romer, R. L., Dulski, P. (2013) Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism in the Darfur volcanic province: mantle source, phonolite-trachyte genesis, and relation to other volcanic provinces in NE-Africa. Int J Earth Sci 102, 183-205


(137) Lucassen F., Franz, G., Rhede, D. (2012) Small-scale transport of trace elements Nb and Cr during growth of titanite – an experimental study at 600 °C, 0.4 GPa. Contrib Mineral Petrol 164, 987-997


(136) Voznjak, D.K., Khomenko, V. M., Franz, G., Wiedenbeck, M. (2012) Physic-chemical conditions of the late stage of Volyn pegmatite evolution: Fluid inclusions in beryl studied by thermobarometry and IR-spectroscopy methods. Mineral. Journ. (Ukraine), 34, 26-38, ISSN 0204-3548 (in Ukranian)


(135) Hippler, D., Hu, N., Steiner, M., Scholtz, G., Franz, G. (2012) Experimental mineralization of crustacean eggs: new implications for the fossilization of Precambrian/Cambrian embryos. Biogeosciences 9, 1-10


(134) Lucassen, F., Franz, G., Wirth, R., Weise, M., Hertwig, A. (2012) The morphology of the reaction front of the dissolution-precipitation reaction rutile + wollastonite = titanite in time series experiments at 600 °C/400 MPa. Amer Mineral 97, 828-839


(133) Drüppel, K., Kratzig, A., Brätz, H., Martin, L., Franz, G., Geismeier, S. (2011) Aramaic basalt statues from Tell Halaf, Syria: Localisation of the ancient quarries (ARCH-07-0070-2009) Archaeometry 53, 441-468


(132) Dörsam, G., Liebscher, A., Wunder, B., Franz, G., Gottschalk, M. (2011) Synthesis of Pb-zoisite and Pb-lawsonite. N Jb Mineral 188/2, 99-110


(131) Lucassen, F., Franz, G., Romer, R.L., and Dulski, P., (2011) Late Mesozoic to Quaternary intraplate magmatism and its relation to the Neoproterozoic lithosphere in NE Africa - New data from lower-crustal and mantle xenoliths from the Bayuda volcanic field, Sudan, in Beccaluva, L., Bianchini, G., and Wilson, M., eds., Volcanism and Evolution of the African Lithosphere: Geological Society of America Special Paper 478:1–24 doi:10.1130/2011.2478(01).


(130) v. Goerne G., Franz G., van Hinsberg V. (2011) Experimental determination of Na-Ca distribution between tourmaline and fluid in the system CaO-Na2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3-H2O. Can Mineral 49:137-152


(129) Lucassen, F., Franz, G., Dulski, P., Romer, R. L., Rhede, D., (2011) Element and Sr isotope signatures in titanite as indicator of variable fluid composition in hydrated eclogite. Lithos 121, 12-24


(128) Vásquez, P., Glodny, J., Franz, G., Frei, D., Romer, R. L. (2011) Early Mesozoic plutonism of the Cordillera de la Costa (34-37°S), Chile: Constraints on the onset of the Andean Orogeny. J Geol 119, 159-184


(127) Lucassen, F., Becchio, R., Franz, G., (2011) The Early Palaeozoic high grade metamorphism at the active continental margin of West Gondwana in the Andes (NW Argentina/N Chile). Int. J. Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 100:445-463 DOI 10.1007/s00531-010-0585-3


(126) Veksler, I. V., J. Kähn, G. Franz and D. B. Dingwell (2010) Interfacial tension between immiscible liquids in the system K2O–FeO–Fe2O3–Al2O3–SiO2 and implications for the kinetics of silicate melt unmixing. Amer Mineral 95, 1679-1685


(125) Lucassen, F., Franz, G., Rhede, D., Wirth, R. (2010) Ti-Al zoning of experimentally grown titanite in the system CaO-Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2-NaCl-H2O-(F) - evidence for small scale fluid heterogeneity. Amer Mineral 95, 1365–1378, 10.2138/am.2010.3518


(124) Liebscher, A., G. Dörsam, G. Franz, B. Wunder and M. Gottschalk (2010) Crystal chemistry of synthetic lawsonite solid solution series CaAl2[(OH)2/Si2O7]·H2O - SrAl2[(OH)2/Si2O7]·H2O and the CmcmP21/m phase transition. Amer. Mineral. 95:724-735


(123) Lucassen, F., P. Dulski, R. Abart, G. Franz, D. Rhede, R. L. Romer (2010) Redistribution of HFSE elements during rutile replacement by titanite: results of microanalyses and diffusion modelling. Contrib Mineral Petrol 160:279-295 DOI 10.1007/s00410-009-0477-3


(122) van Kan Parker M., Liebscher A., Frei D., van Sijl J., van Westrenen W., Blundy J., Franz G. (2010) Experimental and computational study of trace element distribution between orthopyroxene and anhydrous silicate melt: substitution mechanisms and the effect of iron.- Contrib Mineral Petrol 159:459-473 doi:10.1007/s00410-009-0435-0


(121) Lucassen, F., Wiedicke, M., Franz, G. (2010) Complete recycling of a magmatic arc – evidence from chemical and isotopic composition of Quaternary trench sediments in Chile (36° - 40°S). Intern J Geol 99:687-701


(120) Vásquez, P., Franz, G., Glodny, J., Romer, R.L., Gerdes, A. (2009) Origin of fayalite granitoids: new insights from the Cobquecura pluton, Chile, and its metapelitic xenoliths. Lithos 110:181-198


(119) Dörsam, G., Liebscher, A., Wunder, B., Franz, G., Gottschalk, M. (2009) Crystal structure refinement of synthetic Ca0.43Sr0.57[SiO3]-walstromite and walstromite-fluid Ca-Sr distribution at upper mantle conditions. Eur J Mineral 21:705-714


(118) Aki, S. R., Jekel, M., Franz, G., Steiof, M. (2009) Untersuchung passivierender Korrosionsprodukte in Fe(0)-Horizontalfiltern zur reduktiven Grundwasserbehandlung. Vom Wasser 107/2:12-16


(117) Liebscher A., Thiele M., Franz G., Dörsam G., Gottschalk M. (2009) Synthetic Ca-Sr margarite, anorthite and slawsonite solid solutions and solid-fluid Ca-Sr distribution. Eur J Mineral 21:275-292 DOI: 10.1127/0935-1221/2009/0021-1917


(116) Frei, D., Liebscher, A. Franz, G., Wunder, B., Klemme, S., Blundy, J. (2009) Trace element partitioning between orthopyroxene and anhydrous silicate melts on the lherzolite solidus from 1.1 to 3.2 GPa and 1230ºC to 1535ºC in the model system Na2O-CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. Contrib Mineral Petrol 157:473-490


(115) Lucassen, F., G. Franz, R. R. Romer, P. Dulski (2008) Late Cenozoic xenoliths as a guide to the chemical - isotopic composition and thermal state of the upper mantle under north east Africa. Eur J Mineral 20: 1079-1096


(114) Lucassen, F., G. Franz, D. Pudlo, R. R. Romer, P. Dulski (2008) Nd, Pb, and Sr isotope composition of Late Mesozoic to Quaternary intra-plate magmatism in NE-Africa (Sudan, Egypt): implications for the mantle sources. Contrib Mineral Petrol 156:765-784


(113) Dörsam, G., Liebscher, A., Wunder, B., Franz, G. (2008) Crystal structure of synthetic melanotekite (Pb2Fe2Si2O9), kentrolite (Pb2Mn2Si2O9) and the aluminium analogue Pb2Al2Si2O9 Amer. Mineral. 93: 573-583


(112) Vasquez Illanes P., Franz G. (2008) The Cobquecura Pluton (Triassic, Central Chile), an example of a fayalite-bearing A-Type granitoid massif at a continental margin. Tectonophysics 459:66-84


(111) Müller, W., Franz, G. (2008) TEM-microstructures in omphacite and other minerals from eclogite near to a thrust zone; the Eclogite Zone - Venediger nappe area, Tauern Window, Austria. N Jb Mineral 184:285-298


(110) Lucassen F., Franz G., Schultz F., Romer R. R., Dulski P., Wemmer K.  (2007) Pre-Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism along the Central Andes (17 – 34°S): composition of the mantle at an active margin. Lithos 99: 312-338


(109) Gleißner, P., Glodny J., Franz G.  (2007) Age of pseudomorphs after lawsonite in metabasalts from the Glockner nappe, Tauern Window, Eastern Alps. Eur J Mineral 19: 723-734


(108) Drüppel, K., Hösch, A., Franz G. (2007) The system Al2O3-P2O5-H2O at temperatures below 200 °C: Experimental data on the stability of variscite and metavariscite AlPO4x2H2O. Amer Mineral 92, 1695-1703


(107) Hensel, N. , G. Franz, M. Gottschalk, M. Riedl, B. Wunder, F. Galbert, J. Nissen (2007) Polymorphism and solid solution in the system SiO2-AlPO4(-H2O): a review and new synthesis experiments up to 3.5 GPa and 1573 K. N Jb Mineral 184:131-149


(106) Dörsam, G., Liebscher A., Wunder, B., Franz G., Gottschalk M., (2007) Crystal chemistry of synthetic Ca2Al3Si3O12OH - Sr2Al3Si3O12OH solid solution series of zoisite and clinozoisite. Amer Mineral 92: 1133-1147


(105) Liebscher, A., Franz G., Frei D., Dulski, P. (2007) High-pressure melting of MORB and the P-T-X history of trondhjemitic zoisite-pegmatites, Münchberg Massif, Germany. J Petrol. 48: 1001-1019


(104) Lucassen, F., W. Kramer, V. Bartsch, H.-G. Wilke, G. Franz, R. Romer, P. Dulski (2006) Crustal growth in continental magmatic arcs: juvenile magmatism of the large Mesozoic igneous province of northern Chile (18-27°S). Contributions Mineralogy Petrology 152:571-589


(103) Frei, D., J. A. Hollis, A. Gerdes, C. Karlsson, P. Vasquez, G. Franz, D., Harlov, L. Johansson, C. Knudsen (2006) Advanced in-situ trace element and geochronological microanalysis of geomaterials by laser ablation techniques. Geological Survey Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 10, 25-28


(102) Franz, G., F. Lucassen, W. Kramer, R. Trumbull, R.L. Romer, H-G. Wilke, J. Viramonte, R. Becchio, W. Siebel (2006) Evolution and composition of a Neoproterozoic to Recent active continental margin: a site of continental lithospheric growth, recycling and destruction. Frontiers in Earth Sciences, Springer, Vol. 1, 45-64


(101) Hackney, R., Echtler H., Franz G., Götze H.-J., Lucassen F., Lüth S., Marchenko D., Melnick D., Meyer U., Schmidt S., Tasárová  Z., Tassara A., Wienecke S. (2006) The Segmented Overriding Plate and Coupling at the South-Central Chilean Margin (36–42°S). Frontiers in Earth Sciences, Springer, Vol. 1, 355-374


(100) Glodny, J., Echtler H., Figueroa O., Franz G., Gräfe K., Kemnitz H., Krawczyk C., Lohrmann J., Lucassen F., Melnick D., Rosenau M., Seifert W. (2006) Long-term geological evolution and mass flow balance of the South-Central Chilean Andes. Frontiers in Earth Sciences, Springer, Vol. 1, 401-428


(99) Van Hinsberg, V. J., J. C. Schumacher, S. Kearnsi, P. R.D. Mason, G. Fanz (2006) Hour glass zoning in metamorphic tourmaline and resultant major and trace element fractionation. Amer Mineral 91: 717-728


(98) Glodny, J., U. Ring, A. Kühn, P. Gleissner, G. Franz (2005) Crystallization and very rapid exhumation of the youngest Alpine eclogites (Tauern Window, Eastern Alps) from Rb/Sr mineral assemblage analysis. Contrib Mineral Petrol 149: 699-712


(97) Lucassen, F., G. Franz, J. Viramonte, R.L. Romer, P. Dulski, A. Lang (2005) The late Cretaceous lithospheric mantle beneath the Central Andes: evidence from phase equilibrium and composition of mantle xenoliths. Lithos 82: 379-406


(96) Büttner, S. H., J. Glodny, F. Lucassen, K. Wemmer, S. Erdmann, R. Handler, G. Franz (2005) Ordovician metamorphism and plutonism in the Sierra de Quilmes metamorphic array: implications for the tectonic setting of the northern Sierras Pampeanas (NW Argentina). Lithos 83:143-181


(95) Lucassen, F., G. Franz (2005) Early Paleozoic high-T metamorphism and magmatism in the Central Andes: a non-collisional orogen comparable to the Cenozoic high plateau. In: Vaughan, A.P.M., Leat, P.T. & Pankhurst, R.J. (eds). Terrane Processes at the Margins of Gondwana. Geol. Soc., London, Special Publications 246, 257-273


(94) Lucassen, F., R. Trumbull, G. Franz, C. Creixell, P. Vasques, R. L. Romer, O. Figueroa (2004) Distinguishing crustal recycling and juvenile additions at continental margins: the Paleozoic to recent compositional evolution of the Chilean Pacific margin (36-41°S). J South Amer Earth Sci 17, 103-119


(93) Feenstra, A., G. Franz (2004) Metamorphic rocks: Regional Metamorphism. Encyclopedia of Geology (eds. Selley RC, Cocks R, Plimer IR), 407-413, Elsevier, Amsterdam


(92) Müller, W. F., G. Franz (2004) Unusual deformation microstructures in garnet, titanite and clinozoisite from an eclogite of the Lower Schist Cover, Tauern Window, Austria. Eur J Mineral 16, 939-944


(91) Kasemann, S., A. Meixner, J. Erzinger, J.G. Viramonte, R. N. Alonso and G. Franz (2004): Boron isotope composition of geothermal fluids and borate minerals from salar deposits (Central Andes/NW Argentina). J South Amer Earth Sci 16, 685-697


(90) Liebscher, A., D. Frei, G. Franz and P. Dulski (2004) Trace element geochemistry  of epidote minerals. Reviews in Mineralogy  and Geochemistry  56, 553-606


(89) Franz, G. and A. Liebscher (2004) Physical and chemical properties of the epidote minerals – An Introduction. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 56, 1-82


(88) Müller, W. F., F. E. Brenker, E. Barnert, G. Franz (2004) Chain multiplicity faults in deformed omphacite from eclogite of the Lower Schist Cover of the Tauern Window, Alps. Eur. J. Mineral. 16, 37-48


(87) Rosner, M., J. Erzinger, G. Franz, R. B. Trumbull (2003): Slab-derived boron isotopic signatures in arc volcanic rocks from the Central Andes and evidence for boron isotopic fractionation during progressive slab dehydration. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4(8), 9005, doi: 10.1029/2002GC000438 (G cubed)


(86) Bailo, E., Schandelmeier, H., Franz, G., Sun, Ch.-H., Stern, R. J. (2003): Plutonic and metamorphic rocks  from the Keraf Suture (NE Sudan): A glimpse of the tectonic evolution of the NE margin of W Gondwana during Mid-Proterozoic time. Precambrian Research 123: 67-80


(85) Franz G. and Morteani G. (2002): Be-minerals: Synthesis, stability, and occurrence in metamorphic rocks.-  in: Beryllium (ed. E. S. Grew). Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 50: 551-589


(84) Lucassen F., Escayola M., Franz G., Romer R. L. and Koch K. (2002): Isotopic composition of Late Mesozoic mafic rocks from the Andes (23 - 32°S) - Implications for Andean mantle sources. Contr. Min. Petr. 143:336-349


(83) Lucassen, F., R. Becchio, R. Harmon, S. Kasemann, G. Franz, R. Trumbull, H.-G. Wilke, R. L. Romer  and P. Dulski (2001) Composition and density model of the continental crust in an active continental margin - the Central Andes between 18° and 27°S. Tectonophysics 341:195-223


(82) Lucassen, F., R. Harmon, G. Franz, R. L. Romer, R. Becchio and W. Siebel (2002) Lead evolution of the pre-Mesozoic Andean crust (18-27°S): progressive homogenisation of Pb. Chemical Geology 186: 183-197


(81) Brunsmann A., Franz G., Heinrich W. (2002): Experimental investigation of zoisite-clinozoisite phase equilibria in the system CaO- Al2O3-Fe2O3-SiO2-H2O. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 143:115-130


(80) Liebscher, A, Gottschalk M., Franz G. (2002): The substitution Fe3+ - Al and the isosymmetric displacive phase transition in synthetic zoisite: a powder X-ray and infrared spectroscopy study. American Mineralogist 87: 909 – 921


(79) Paulick, H. and G. Franz (2001): Metamorphism of the Thalanga volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit (northern Queensland, Australia): Application of geothermometry in a hydrothermally altered greenschist facies terrane. Mineralium Deposita 36: 786-793


(78) von Goerne, G., G. Franz and W. Heinrich (2001): Synthesis of tourmaline solid solutions in the system Na2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3-H2O-HCl and the distribution of Na between tourmaline and fluid at 300 to 700 °C/ 200 MPa. Contr. Mineral. Petrol. 141: 160-173


(77) Kasemann, S., J. Erzinger and G. Franz (2000): Boron recycling in the continental crust of the Central Andes from the Palaeozoic to Mesozoic, NW Argentina. Contr. Mineral. Petrol. 140: 328-343


(76) Franz, G. and F. Lucassen (2001): Comment on the paper “Puncoviscana folded belt in northwestern Argentina: testimony of Late Proterozoic Rodinia fragmentation and pre-Gondwana collisonal episodes” by Omarini et al. (2000) Int. J. Earth Sci. Geologische Rundschau, 90: 890-893


(75) Franz, G., F. Lucassen, R. B. Trumbull, J. G. Viramonte, H. G. Wilke (2000):

The evolution of a continental margin from a geochemical and petrological point of view - The Central Andes (18 °S - 26 °S). Zeitschrift für Angewandte Geologie, SH1 (2000), 317-322

(74) Becchio, R., F. Lucassen, G. Franz, J. G. Viramonte, K. Wemmer (1999): El Basamento Paleozoico Inferior del Noroeste de Argentina (13 ° - 27 °sur) Metamorfismo y Geocronología. Relatorio Geologia del Noroeste Argentino 1, 58-72, XIV Congreso Geológico Argentino, Salta 1999


(73) Franz, G., R. Becchio, F. Lucassen, S. Büttner (1999): Basamento metamórfico del paleozoico inferior y xenolitos de corteza inferior. Guia de Campo, XIV Congreso Geológico Argentino, Salta, 1999


(72) Smelik, E. A., G. Franz and A. Navrotsky (2001): A calorimetric study of zoisite and clinozoisite solid solutions. Amer. Mineralogist  86: 80-91


(71) Brunsmann, A., G. Franz and J. Erzinger (2001): REE mobility and zoisite/ fluid partitioning at near-eclogite facies conditions . Geochim. Cosmoschim. Acta. 65, 559-570


(70) von Goerne, G. and G. Franz (2000): Synthesis of Ca-tourmaline in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3-H2O-HCl.- Mineralogy and Petrology 69: 161-182


(69) Pudlo, D. und G. Franz (1999): Junger Vulkanismus, Mantle Plumes und Tektonik im Sudan. in: Nordost-Afrika: Strukturen und Ressourcen (eds: U. Thorweihe und E. Klitzsch), pp 109-136, VHC Verlag, Weinheim


(68) Becchio, R., F. Lucassen, S. Kasemann, G. Franz, J. Viramonte (2000): Geoquímica y sistemática isotópica del basamento metamorfico, peleozoico inferior, noroeste de argentina y norte de Chile (21 ° - 27 °S). Acta Geologica Hispanica; 34: 273-299


(67) von Goerne, G., G. Franz, J.-L. Robert (1999): Upper thermal stability of tourmaline + quartz in the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3-H2O-HCl  and Na2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3-H2O-HCl in hydrothermal solutions and siliceous melts. Can. Mineral. 37: 1025-1040


(66) Lucassen, F., G. Franz, M. F. Thirlwall, K. Mezger (1999): Crustal recycling of metamorphic basement: Late Palaeozoic granitoids of northern Chile (≈ 22°S). Implications for the composition of the Andean Crust. J. Petrol. 40: 1527-1551


(65) von Goerne, G., G. Franz and R. Wirth (1999): Hydrothermal synthesis of large dravite crystals by the chamber method. Eur. J. Mineral. 11: 1061-1078


(64) Lucassen, F., H.G. Wilke, R. Becchio, J. Viramonte, G.Franz, A. Laber, K. Wemmer, P. Vroon (2000): The Paleozoic basement of the Central Andes (18-26°S) – a mobile belt of the South American craton. J. South Amer. Earth Sci. 13, 697-715


(63) Brunsmann, A., G. Franz, J. Erzinger, D. Landwehr  (2000): Zoisite- and clinozoisite-segregations in metabasites (Tauern Window, Austria) as evidence for high-pressure fluid-rock interaction. J. metamorphic Geology 18: 1-21


(62) Franz, G., G. Steiner, F. Volker, D. Pudlo and K. Hammerschmidt (1999): Plume-related alkaline magmatism in central Africa - the Meidob Hills (W Sudan). Chem. Geol. 157: 27-47


(61) Najorka, J., M. Gottschalk, G. Franz, W. Heinrich (1999): Ca-Sr distribution between amphibole, clinopyroxene and chloride-bearing solutions. Amer. Mineral. 84: 596-606


(60) Lucassen, F., Lewerenz, S., Franz, G., Viramonte, J. & Mezger, K. (1999) Metamorphism, isotopic ages and chemistry of lower crustal granulite xenoliths from the Cretaceous Salta Rift, Argentina. Contr. Min. Petrol. 134: 325-341


(59) Lucassen, F., G. Franz, A. Laber (1999): Permian high pressure rocks - the basement of the Sierra de Limón Verde in N-Chile. J. South Amer. Earth Sci. 12: 183-199


(58) von Quadt, A., D. Günther, R. Frischknecht, R. Zimmermann, G. Franz (1997): The evolution of pre-Variscan eclogites of the Tauern Window (Eastern Alps): A Sm/Nd-, conventional and Laser ICP-Ms zircon U-Pb study. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 77: 265-279


(57) Paulick, H. and G. Franz (1997): The colour of trachytic pumice - a case study from the Meidob Volcanic Field (Sudan). Bull. of Volcanology, 59: 171-185


(56) Franz, G., C. Breitkreuz, D. A. Coyle, B. El Hur, W. Heinrich, H. Paulick, D. Pudlo, G. Steiner, R. Smith (1997): Geology of the Alkaline Meidob Volcanic Field, Late Cenozoic, in Sudan. J. African Earth Sci., 25: 263-291


(55) Franz, G., H. A. Gilg, G. Grundmann and G. Morteani (1997): Comment on "Metasomatism at a granitic pegmatite-dunite contact in Galicia: The Franqueira occurrence of chrysoberyl (alexandrite), emerald, and phenakite " by Martin Izard et al. (1995). Can. Mineral. 34: 1329-1331


(54) Zimmermann, R., M. Gottschalk, W. Heinrich and G. Franz (1997): Experimental Na-K-distribution between amphiboles and aqueous chloride solutions, and a mixing model along the richterite-K-richterite join. Contr. Mineral. Petrol. 126: 252-264


(53) Zimmermann, R., E. Knop, W. Heinrich, I. Pehlke and G. Franz (1997): Fractional crystallisation in Na-K- and Na-Ca-cation exchange experiments between amphiboles (richterite-tremolite) and aqueous solutions. Eur. J. Mineralogy 9: 97-114


(52) Heinrich, W., G. Andrehs and G. Franz (1997): Monazite-xenotime miscibility gap thermometry. I. An empirical calibration. J. metamorphic Geology, 15: 3-16


(51) Franz, G., G. Andrehs and D. Rehde (1996): Crystal chemistry of monazite and xenotime from metapelites of the Saxothuriungian-Moldanubian area, NE Bavaria. Eur. J. Mineralogy 8: 1097-1118


(50) Zimmermann, R., W. Heinrich and G. Franz (1996): Tremolite synthesis from CaCl2-bearing aqueous solutions. Eur. J. Mineralogy 8: 767-776


(49) Lucassen, F., C. M. R. Fowler and G. Franz (1996): Formation of magmatic crust at the Andean continental margin during early mesozoic: a geological and thermal model of the north Chilean coast range. Tectonophysics 262: 263-279


(48) Lucassen, F. and G. Franz (1996): Magmatic arc metamorphism: petrology and temperature history of metabasic rocks in the coastal cordillera of northern Chile. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 14: 249-265


(47) Pudlo, D. and G. Franz (1995): Records of deep seated magma chamber processes from plagioclase and amphibole phenocrysts in Pan-African dyke rocks from Bir Sassaf/SW-Egypt. Physics and Chemistry of Dykes, Baer and Heimann (eds) Spec. Vol. 3rd Int. Dyke Conf., Jerusalem/Isreal, Balkema, Rotterdam, p 252-265


(46) Franz, G. and E. A. Smelik (1995): Zoisite-clinozoisite bearing pegmatites and their importance for decompressional melting in eclogites. Eur. J. Mineralogy 7: 1421-1436


(45) Sánchez-Viscaíno, V. L., G. Franz and M. T. Gómez-Pugnaire (1995): The bahaviour of Cr during metamorphism of carbonate rocks from the Nevado-Filabride complex, Betic Cordilleras, Spain. Canadian Mineralogist 33: 85-104


(44) Friedel, C. H., P. Hoth, G. Franz und G. Stedingk (1995): Niedriggradige Regionalmetamorphose im Harz. Zbl. Geol. Paläont. Teil I; 1993; H 9/10, 1213-1235


 (43) Zimmermann, R., K. Hammerschmidt and G. Franz (1994): Eocene high pressure metamorphism in the Penninic units of the Tauern Window (Eastern Alps): evidence from 40Ar-39Ar dating and petrological investigations. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 117: 175-186


(42) Franz, G., D. Pudlo, G. Urlacher, U. Haußmann, A. Boven and K. Wemmer (1994): The Darfur Dome, Sudan: the product of a subcontinental mantle plume. Geol. Rundschau 83: 614-623


(41) Denkler, T., G. Franz, and H. Schandelmeier (1994): Tectonometamorphic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Delgo suture zone, Northern  Sudan. Geol. Rundschau 83: 578-590


(40) Pudlo, D. and G. Franz (1994): Dike rock generation and magma interactions in the Bir Safsaf igneous complex, south-west Egypt: Implications for the Pan-African evolution in north-east Africa. Geol. Rundschau 83: 523-536


(39) Gomez-Pugnaire, M. T., G. Franz and V. López Sánchez-Viscaino (1994): Retrograde formation of NaCl-scapolite in high pressure metaevaporites from the Cordilleras Béticas (Spain). Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 116: 448-461


(38) Lucassen, F. and G. Franz (1994): Arc related igneous and metaigneous rocks in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile/Region Antofagasta. Lithos 32: 273-298


(37) Selverstone, J., Franz, G., Thomas, S., Getty, S. (1992) Fluid variability in 2 GPa eclogites as an indicator of fluid behaviour druing subduction. Contrib Mineral Petrol 112: 341-357


(36) Franz, G. and J. Selverstone (1992): An empirical phase diagram for the clinozoisite-zoisite transformation in the system Ca2Al3Si3O12(OH) - Ca2Al2FeSi3O12(OH). Amer. Mineralogist 77: 631-642


(35) Lucassen, F. and G. Franz (1992): Generation and metamorphism of new crust in magmatic arcs: a case study from northern Chile. Terra Nova 4: 41-52


(34) Hammerschmidt, K. and G. Franz (1992): Retrograde evolution of eclogites: evidences from microstructures and 40Ar/39Ar white mica dates, Münchberg Massif, northern Bavaria. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 111: 113-125


(33) Franz, G., V. Mosbrugger and R. Menge (1991): Carbo-Permian pteridophyll leaf fragments from an amphibolite facies basement, Tauern Window, Austria. Terra nova 3: 137-141


(32) Abdel Rahman, E. M., U. Harms, H. Schandelmeier, G. Franz, D. P. F. Darbyshire, P. Horn and D. Müller-Sohnius (1990): A new ophiolite occurrence in NW Sudan - constraints on Late Proterozoic tectonism. Terra nova 2: 363-376


(30) Franz, G. (1989): Stability of magnesite in carbonate-silicate assemblages; a review.- Monograph Series on Mineral Deposits 28: 259-268


(31) Gomez-Pugnaire, M.-T., G. Franz and M. Munoz (1989): Progressive metamorphic evolution of eclogites containing kyanite veins int the Betic Cordilleras (SE Spain). Rend. Soc. Ital. Miner. Petrol. 43-3: 671-685


(29) Thomas, S. und G. Franz (1989): Kluftminerale und ihre Bildungsbedingungen in Gesteinen der Eklogitzone/Südvenedigergebiet (Hohe Tauern, Österreich). Mitt. Österr. Geol. Ges. 81: 167-188


(28) Zimmermann, R. und G. Franz (1989): Die Eklogite der Unteren Schieferhülle; Frosnitztal/Südvenediger (Tauern/Österreich). Mitt. Österr. Geol. Ges. 81: 167-188.


(27) Franz, G., M.-T. Gomez-Pungaire et M. Munoz (1988): Mise en évidence d'une nouvelle étape de métamorphisme dans les dykes basiques des zones de Lubrin et Cobdar (Cordilléres Bétiques, Nevado-Filabrides, Espagne). C.R.Acad.Sci. Paris, 307, série II, 2041-2047.


(26) Gomez-Pugnaire, M.-T. and G. Franz (1988): Metamorphic evolution of the paleozoic series of the Betic Cordilleras (Nevado-Filabride complex, SE Spain) and its relationship with the Alpine orogeny. Geol. Rundschau 77: 619-640.


(25) Huth, A. and G. Franz (1988): Structural development of the Precambrian basement in the Bir Safsaf-Aswan area, SW-Egypt. Geol. Rundschau 77: 439-451


(24) Bernau, R. and G. Franz (1987): Crystal chemistry and genesis of Nb-, V-, and Al-rich metamorphic titanite from Egypt and Greece. Can. Mineral. 25: 695-705


(23) Franz, G., H. Puchelt and P. Pasteels (1987): Petrology, geochemistry and age relations of Triassic and Tertiary volcanic rocks from SW Egypt and N Sudan. J. African Earth Sci., 6: 335-352


(22) Schandelmeier, H., A. Huth, U. Harms, G. Franz and R. Bernau (1987): The Eastern Saharan Craton in Southern Egypt and Northern Sudan: Lithology, metamorphism, magmatism, geochronology and structural development. Berl. Geowiss. Abh. A 75-1: 25-48


(21) Bernau, R., D. P. F. Darbyshire, G. Franz, U. Harms, A. Huth, N. Mansour, P. Pasteels and H. Schandelmeier (1987): Petrology, geochemistry and structural development of the Bir Safsaf - Aswan Uplift/Southern Egypt. J. African Earth Sci. 6: 71-90                     


(20) Cemic, L., K. Langer and G. Franz (1986): Experimental determination of melting relationships of beryl in the system BeO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O between 10 and 25 kbar. Miner. Mag. 50: 55-61


(19) Franz, G., G. Grundmann and D. Ackermand (1986): Rock-forming beryl from a regional metamorphic terrain (Tauern Window, Austria): Paragenesis and crystal chemistry. Tscherm. Min. Petr. Mitt. 35: 167-192


(18) Spear, F. S. and G. Franz (1986): P-T-evolution of metasediments from the Eclogite Zone, south-central Tauern Window, Austria.- Lithos 19: 219-234


(17) Franz, G., S. Thomas and D. C. Smith (1986): High pressure phengite decomposition in the Weißenstein eclogite, Münchberger Gneiss Massif, Germany. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 92: 71-85


(16) Gomez-Pugnaire, M.-T., D. Visona and G. Franz (1985): Kyanite, margarite and paragonite in pseudomorphs in amphibolitized eclogites from the Bethic Cordilleras, Spain. Chem. Geology 50: 129-141


(15) Franz, G. and F. S. Spear (1985): Aluminous titanite (sphene) from the Eclocite Zone, South-Central Tauern Window, Austria.- Chem. Geology 50: 33-46


(14) Huth, A., G. Franz and H. Schandelmeier (1984): Magmatic and metamorphic units of NW Sudan: A reconnaissance survey. Berl. Geowiss. Abh. 50: 7-21                     


(13) Schandelmeier, H., A. Richter and G. Franz (1984): Outline of the geology of magmatic and metamorphic units between Gebel Uweinat and Bir Safsaf (SW Egypt/N Sudan). J. Afric. Earth Sci., 1: 275-283     


(12) Selverstone, J., F. S. Spear, G. Franz and G. Morteani (1984): High-pressure metamorphism in the SW Tauern Window, Austria: P-T paths from hornblende-kyanite-staurolite-schists. J. Petrol. 25: 501-531.


(11) Franz, G. and G. Morteani (1984): The formation of chrysoberyl in metamorphosed pegmatites. J. Petrol. 25, 27-52


(10) Franz, G. (1983): F.I.E.C. viewpoints, Section S, specific mineralogical topics. Terra cognita, 3: 313-316


(9) Franz, G. and F. S. Spear (1983): High pressure metamorphism of siliceous dolomites from the Central Tauern Window, Austria. Amer. J. Sci., Orville vol., 283-A: 396-413


(8) Franz, G. (1982): The brucite-periclase equilibrium at reduced H2O-activities: some informations about the system H2O-NaCl. Amer. J. Sci. 282: 1325-1339                     


(7) Franz, G., D. Ackermand and E. Koch (1981): Karlite, Mg7(BO3)3(OH,Cl) a new borate mineral and associated ludwigite from the Eastern Alps. Amer. Mineral. 66: 872-877


(6) Franz, G. and G. Morteani (1981): The system BeO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O: Hydrothermal investigation of the stability of beryl and euclase in the range from 1 to 6 kb and 400 to 800 °C. N. Jb. Miner. Abh. 140: 273-299


(5) Franz, G. and D. Ackermand (1980): Phase relations and metamorphic history of a clinohumite-chlorite-serpentine-marble from the Western Tauern Area (Austria). Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 75: 97-110


(4) Franz, G., Th. Hinrichsen and E. Wannemacher (1977): Determination of the miscibility gap on the solid solution series paragonite-margarite by means of infrared spectroscopy.- Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 59: 307-316


(3) Franz, G. and E. Althaus (1977): The stability relations of the paragenesis paragonite-zoisite-quartz. N. Jb. Miner. Abh. 130: 159-167


(2) Franz, G. and E. Althaus (1976): Experimental investigation on the formation of solid solutions in sodium-aluminium-magnesium micas. N. Jb. Miner. Abh. 126: 233-253


(1) Franz, G. and E. Althaus (1974): Synthesis and thermal stability of 2.5 octahedral sodium mica, NaMg2.5Si4O10(OH)2. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 46

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